Endocrine surgery on the neck is typically surgery for hyperthyroidism/hyperparathyroidism (overactive thyroid or parathyroid gland).
Thyroid surgery is also carried out in connection with nonfunctional disorders and in response to benign and malignant changes. Benign changes include different types of thyroid nodule and enlargement (strumas).
In typical cases, overactive thyroid glands are removed completely. In cases of struma without any thyroid disorder, either the thyroid is removed completely or one enlarged section is removed.
With functional disorders, the presence of the conditions can typically be established with blood tests and on the basis of clinical symptoms. Thyroid nodules and enlargements are also generally discovered/examined using ultrasound technology and fine-needle sampling.
With parathyroid surgery, one enlarged and overactive parathyroid gland is normally removed. This leads to changes in calcium balance in the body and associated secondary symptoms and disorders. Such disorders include, for example, bone porosity and urinary tract stones. Exceptional fatigue and memory impairment have been described in connection with the disorder. Often the symptoms ease after an operation.
An endocrinologist would normally be involved in the planning of any treatment for an overactive thyroid or parathyroid gland.
Nodules very often occur in thyroid glands, but only a small number are malignant thyroid cancers.